Rapid urbanisation, however, also imposes challenges: a lack of affordable housing results in nearly one billion urban poor living in informal settlements at the urban periphery, vulnerable and often exposed to criminal activity. It also revealed that Economy (GDP per capita) is the most important factor in evaluating a country’s happiness. Kuehn, S., Duezel, S., Eibich, P., Krekel, C., Wüstemann, H., Kolbe, J., Martensson, J., Goebel, J., Gallinat, J., Wagner, G. G., and Lindenberger, U. The seventh World Happiness Report has just been published to coincide with International Day of Happiness on March 20, 2019. [18] To do so, we turn again – in line with the methodology applied in the World Happiness Reports – to the Gallup World Poll and the Gallup US Poll, which include items on positive and negative affect, constructed from batteries of yes-no questions that ask respondents about their emotional experiences on the previous day. Let’s take a closer look at the top 10 happiest countries in 2015 and how much each of the six factors contributed toward their overall happiness scores. World-Happiness-Report-Data-Analysis. Happiness is a difficult term to define as it varies from individual to individual. The only European city in the bottom ten cities of how positively their inhabitants evaluate their future lives is Athens in Greece, which may be explained by the recent economic crisis in the country. But what is the ranking based on, and how seriously should we take it?The Happiness Report uses data collected by Gallup, a management-consulting company known for its public opinion polls. It includes at least 1,000 observations per country per year, covering both urban and rural areas, with a tendency to oversample major cities. The World Happiness Report is a landmark survey of the state of global happiness. The World Happiness Report is a landmark survey of the state of global happiness that ranks 156 countries by how happy their citizens perceive themselves to be. Introduction. Acknowledgment: We are grateful to Sidharth Bhushan and Pekka Vuorenlehto for outstanding research assistance. They are more likely to be in professional and service jobs, and less likely to have kids. Krekel, C., and Kolbe, J. (2009) "The life satisfaction approach to valuing public goods: The case of terrorism," Public Choice, 138, 317-345. (2007) "Calculating Tragedy: Assessing the Costs of Terrorism," Journal of Economic Surveys, 21(1), 1-24. ↩︎, See, for example, White et al. In fact, employing well-being surveys allows to figure out the relative importance of different domains in shaping well-being, thus providing evidence-based guidance for policymakers on how to optimize the well-being of their populations. There were 371 cities with more than one million inhabitants at the turn of the century in 2000. Urban sprawl and inefficient land use contribute to biodiversity loss. Document ‘HR17.PDF‘ is the main report. [17] While life evaluation is our primary measure of subjective well-being, we also take into account well-being measures of how people experience their lives on a day-to-day basis. What stands out from this analysis, however, is that this difference is greater for city residents at the lower end of the well-being scale before it diminishes and often reverses at the top-end: residents of cities at the lower end are about 0.5 points happier than the average populations in their respective countries. Some really interesting features are contained in these data sets. I performed Data Analysis on COVID 19 dataset by John Hopkins University and World Happiness Report and found really interesting results. (2010) "Happiness and financial satisfaction in Israel: Effects of religiosity, ethnicity, and war," Journal of Economic Psychology, 31(6), 1008-1020. The main innovation in the World Happiness Report 2017 is our focus on the role of social factors in supporting happiness. The generally high level of affective well-being in the region is well-documented in the literature[22] and may be due to, for example, stronger family relationships, social capital, and culture-related factors. The report outlined the state of world happiness, causes of happiness and misery, and policy implications highlighted by case studies. The World Happiness Report 2016 Update, which ranks 156 countries by their happiness levels, was released in Rome in advance of UN World Happiness Day, March 20th. (2017) "In search of features that constitute an 'enriched environment' in humans: Associations between geographical properties and brain structure," Nature: Scientific Reports, 7(11920), 1-8. About 4.2 billion people, more than half of the world's population (55.3 per cent), are living in urban areas today. ↩︎, For the US cities, we use the Gallup US Poll in exactly the same way as the Gallup World Poll, with the sole exception of not including 'anger' as part of the negative affect index because it is un-available in the US Poll. The World Happiness Report is an assessment of the state of universal happiness. Many of them originate from Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as many regions in Africa. In general, Economy and Family seem to the the two most important factors of happiness in these countries. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The only top ten cities that are not located in either Scandinavia or Australia and New Zealand are Zurich (Switzerland) and Tel Aviv (Israel). During the same time, the number of so-called mega cities – cities that have more than ten million inhabitants, most of which are located in the Global South – is expected to increase from 33 to 43, with the fastest growth in Asia and Africa. Bertram, C., and Rehdanz, K. (2015) "The role of urban green space for human well-being," Ecological Economics, 120, 139-152. White, M. P., Alcock, I., Wheeler, B. W., and Depledge, M. H. (2013) "Would You Be Happier Living in a Greener Urban Area? Finland bags top spot and not only has the happiest people, but also the happiest immigrants. We are not relying on a limited number of objective dimensions of quality of life, often defined ex-ante according to what researchers (or policy-makers) consider important. However, this is somewhat less the case for countries at lower levels. [“Those homogeneous bastards!” - Adrian]). (ed), Handbook of Eudaimonic Well-Being, Cham: Springer. ↩︎. Analyzing the World Happiness Report dataset as Part of The EPFL Applied Machine Learning Course (Project 1). Of the 156 countries, India ranked 133 — a steady decline from 111 in 2013. Other cities in or at the fringes of the European Union that have made substantial progress (of 0.5 or more points on the zero-to-ten life evaluation scale) are Riga (Latvia), ranked 13, Belgrade (Serbia), ranked 17, Bucharest (Romania), ranked 22, and Budapest (Hungary), ranked 23. Note: There are some gratuitous remarks made about the data in this report by my friend, Adrian. (Note: 2017 does not have a region column, so we can create one by joining the region data from another year’s dataset by country ID and filling in any missing cells manually). High-income countries are considered those with a GNI per capita of $12,376 or more (World Bank, 2020). The rankings of national happiness are based on a Cantril ladder survey. As half of the world's population is living in cities today, and since this number is expected to rise to two third by the middle of the century, studying how city dwellers fare on balance when it comes to their quality of life is an important undertaking. [1] There were 371 cities with more than one million inhabitants at the turn of the century in 2000. As Figure 3.3 suggests, residents of cities are somewhat happier than the mean happiness of their respective country populations suggests. This project is the result of the collaborative work between Antoine Ghilissen and Mate Pocs, carried out for the Flatiron School Module 3 Project.. Executive Summary. [“I’ll bet Americans aren’t actually that happy. Released by the UN, WHR is based on a Gallup survey where respondents are asked to rate their lives on a scale of 1 to 10, with 0 being the worst possible life. The 2020 report ranked 156 countries by how happy their citizens perceive themselves based on their evaluations of their own lives. At the same time, however, cities create negative externalities such as urban sprawl, crime, congestion, and often hazardous pollution levels. Frey, B. S., Luechinger, S., and Stutzer, A. Then, we analyse whether and how cities' happiness has changed during the past decade, whether there exist significant differences between cities and their countries, and whether there are substantial happiness inequalities within cities relative to countries. (2017). Some cities have experienced significant positive changes in their citizens' happiness over the past decade: changes above 0.5 points in life evaluation, which is measured on a zero-to-ten scale, can be considered very large changes; a change of 0.5 points is approximately the change when finding gainful employment after a period of unemployment. To do so we’re following the general procedure of extract, transform, load . Since there is no systematic bias upwards or downwards when comparing city scores between both surveys, and especially because the Gallup US Poll score and the Gallup World Poll score are essentially identical, we merge the US Poll with the World Poll data without the need for any adjustments. European Commission (2013) “Building a Green Infrastructure for Europe”, Brussels: Publications Office of the European Union. For the most part, the scores for each country do not change significantly from 2015-2017. We rank cities' quality of life fundamentally differently than existing rankings: our ranking relies entirely on city dwellers' self-reported quality of life, measured in terms of their subjective well-being. To ensure that it is appropriate to merge the data coming from different surveys, we calculated the 2014-2018 average current life evaluation score for the Gallup US Poll and the World Poll, and found them to be almost identical: 6.96 for the US Poll and 6.97 for the World Poll. A lack of public transport infrastructure results in congestion and often hazardous pollution levels in inner cities. Taken together, our methodological approach leads our ranking of cities' happiness to cover 186 cities across the globe. They are thus less prone to social narratives, comparisons, or issues of adaptation and anticipation. (2013), Ambrey et al. I found chapter 5 ‘The Key Determinants of Happiness and Misery‘ to be quite interesting. Arguably, this bottom-up approach gives a direct voice to the population as opposed to the more top-down approach of deciding ex-ante what ought to matter for the well-being of city residents. (2014) "The relationship between well-being and commuting revisited: Does the choice of methodology matter?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, 49, 321-329. India, World’s largest democracy, ranks 133 among 156 countries in World Happiness Index 2018 while the immediate neighbor Pakistan (75th) is the happiest country among the SAARC Nations. To check this, we regress current life evaluation on life evaluation scores pre-2014 and expected life evaluation scores pre-2014. The three datasets used in this analysis are available on Kaggle. All of these supports are stronger in the high-ranking countries. Dystopia, by definition, is a community or a group of people or a place that is terrifying or unwanted. They often outperform their countries in terms of economic growth. Is there predictive power from these self-predicted future scores? The standard deviation is a measure of how dispersed a set of numbers is and can hence serve as a simple measure of inequality in this case. While some cities have experienced large increases in their citizens' happiness over the past decade, others have experienced tremendous reductions, often by more than an entire point on the zero-to-ten life evaluation scale. This analysis illustrated that the world’s happiest countries are primarily in Western Europe (especially Northern Europe), North America, and Australia & New Zealand. Everyone is affected by the state of the economy, especially since it holds direct sway over the availability and security of jobs and the flow of money. Markus Korhonen examines how the scores were put together – and the value of measuring happiness in the first place. And how does well-being and well-being inequality within cities relate to that within countries? India, World’s largest democracy, ranks 133 among 156 countries in World Happiness Index 2018 while the immediate neighbor Pakistan (75th) is the happiest country among the SAARC Nations. The World Happiness Report was written by a group of independent experts acting in their personal capacities. Figure A2 in the Appendix replicates our global ranking of city happiness for positive affect, Figure A3 for negative affect. Situation: You are assigned to analyze the data gathered for the World Happiness Report (2019). In doing so, it emancipates respondents to consider and weigh for themselves which factors – observable or unobservable to researchers – they feel matter most to them. The World Bank (2019b), Urban Development Overview, Online: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/urbandevelopment/overview, last accessed 12/12/2019. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Australia & New Zealand, North America, and Western Europe have the highest average happiness scores. And there are some shocks in store. (2018). Should the person who is looking at this analysis have any questions or suggestions, do not hesitate to contact me. However, reading the 2016 update report changed my mind (sort of). About 4.2 billion people, more than half of the world's population (55.3 per cent), are living in urban areas today. ↩︎, Included US cities are Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington DC. Instead, our ranking is bottom up, emancipating city dwellers to consider for themselves which factors they feel matter most to them. Naturally, the question arises how cities' happiness has changed over the years. [20] Indices are then created by averaging across items, and are bound between zero and one. This and other checks make it possible to integrate the Gallup US Poll data without the need for re-scaling.[16]. ↩︎, See, for example Luechinger (2009), Levinson (2012), Ferreira et al. Finally, to elicit respondents' expectations about their future, we look at future life evaluation, which is a future-oriented Cantril ladder survey item asking respondents where they think that they will stand in terms of their quality of life in five years from now. Importantly, leveraging well-being survey responses is an approach that allows us to get a more holistic grip on the drivers of happiness. Let’s look at how happiness scores changed for each country over time. The finding for optimism of city dwellers in the Latin American and Caribbean region is mirrored by high levels of subjective well-being found in Latin American societies more generally. Impacts Variables: Country Questions Initial Q's Related to Happiness Impact What factor is most significant in impacting a Title As is the case for the ranking of countries in this World Happiness Report, our ranking of cities' happiness around the world relies on the Gallup World Poll, an annual survey that started in 2005 and that is conducted in more than 160 countries covering 99 per cent of the world's population. For some of these places, these scores may come as a surprise, given the difficult economic situations in the countries in which these cities are located. In this multivariate regression, we find that life evaluation scores pre-2014 are highly significant, while expected future life evaluation scores pre-2014 are not significant. Africa appears to contain the lowest overall happiness scores. United Nations (2018) The World's Cities in 2018: Data Booklet, New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Kilroy, A. F. L., Mukim, M. and Negri, S. (2015) "Competitive cities for jobs and growth: what, who, and how," in: Competitive cities for jobs and growth, Washington, DC: World Bank Group. Of course, this does not mean that there are large differences on a case-by-case basis: in fact, for some cities and countries, happiness inequality is much larger at the country-level, whereas for others, it is much larger at the city-level. Arguably, this makes it also a more democratic way of measuring their quality of lives. They are predominantly in Africa, Eastern Europe, or Central Asia. I was thinking the same thing when I first stumbled upon the World Happiness Report (WHR). Data Analysis: World Happiness Report (Fun) 2 minute read World Happiness. One might criticise our ranking for relying only on subjective indicators. Dushanbe (Tajikistan) and Almaty (Kazakhstan) – two former Soviet republics located in Central Asia – are ranked second and fourth, respectively. Beyond overall happiness score, country, and region, we’re also interested in the columns for Economy (GDP per capita), Family, Health (Life Expectancy), Freedom, Trust (Absence of Government Corruption), and Generosity. Families are the nucleus of home life for most individuals, and Health also affects people on the level of individuals. To answer this question, in Figure 3.2 we calculate the change in life evaluation for each city against its average life evaluation in the period 2005 to 2013. The city with the largest positive change is Abidjan (Ivory Coast). If we were to exclude Maseru (Lesotho), Maracaibo and Caracas (both Venezuela), Sanaa (Yemen), Kabul (Afghanistan), and Gaza (Palestine) – cities which have been facing exceptional challenges – from our global ranking, we could say that happiness in cities worldwide has increased in recent years. For positive affect, we include whether respondents experienced enjoyment and whether they smiled or laughed a lot. Here’s a world map color-coded by each country’s overall happiness score in 2015. Case study: ons 7. ↩︎, See, for example Stutzer and Frey (2008), Dickerson et al. The same is not the case for the line of best fit in Figure 3.5, which relates to high-income city-country pairs. Now we’re ready to get our hands dirty on the analysis and Power BI Desktop. Ambrey, C., and Fleming, C. (2014b) "Public Greenspace and Life Satisfaction in Urban Australia," Urban Studies, 51(6), 1290-1321. Dolan, P., and Kudrna, L. (2016) "Sentimental Hedonism: Pleasure, Purpose, and Public Poli-cy," in: Vittersø, J. Perhaps less surprising, most cities that score low on positive affect also score high on negative affect, as seen in Figure A3. Krekel, C., Ward, G., and De Neve, J.-E. (2018) "Work and Well-being: A Global Perspective," in: Sachs, J. During the same time, the number of so-called mega cities– cities that have more than ten million inhabitants, most of which are l… Sanaa in Yemen, another war-torn city, is ranked sixth, whereas Beirut in Lebanon (bordering Syria) is ranked fourth from the bottom. Extracting the data. This makes sense, since countries in these regions are more subject to sudden changes in economy and political stability. The strongest reduction is found in Maseru, the capital of Lesotho, which has seen current life evaluation decrease by more than two points. Following Morrison, we split the sample into high-income and low-income countries in order to get a better sense for the different slopes in the relationship between city residents' happiness and their respective country average happiness. They lie.” - Adrian’s unfounded hypothesis]. Rojas, M. (2016) “Handbook of Happiness Research in Latin America”, Berlin: Springer. Create a Presentation Tip: Read through this document in its entirety before you begin. The World Happiness Report 2019 has just been released. Thus, when contrasting the positive agglomeration and productivity benefits of urbanisation and urban amenities with its disadvantages due to disamenities such as congestion or pollution, it seems that, on balance, city dwellers fare slightly better than the remainder of the population, at least when it comes to current life evaluation as our measure of comparison. And there are some shocks in store. ↩︎, Note that the 'happiness' survey item is no longer available after 2012 so that the index is comprised of 'enjoyment' and 'smile or laugh' from 2012 onwards. The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable … The first report was published in 2012, the second in 2013, the third in 2015, and the fourth in the 2016 Update. This is expected, since more economic stability and higher GDP per capita generally encourages stable and comfortable family life as well as increases the availability of proper medical resources and healthcare. Even when doing a univariate regression of current life evaluation scores on expected life evaluation only, we find that it is not significant. It is preferable over definitions of cities based on, say, administrative boundaries, in that it is much more representative of the life realities of most people living in a city. Casting an anchor, and continuously monitoring and benchmarking city dwellers' quality of life around the world, is also an important step towards implementing Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities. Consequently, these are very concrete factors and therefore have more influence on the happiness score gauged by individuals. Perhaps less surprising, most of these cities – together with New Delhi (India), ranked ninth, and Mexico City (Mexico), ranked tenth from the bottom – also score low when it comes to expected future life evaluation. ↩︎, We investigated whether there are systematic differences in responses to the Gallup World Poll and the Gallup US Poll surveying of the Cantril ladder. Regions in gray do not have happiness data. The use of the Gallup World Poll and the Gallup US Poll is generously granted by Gallup, Inc. We received very helpful comments and suggestions from Lara Aknin, John Helliwell, and Richard Layard. Analysis of the factors that affect the World happiness score and investigation of possible correlations with Python. If a city lies above the 45-degree line, it has a higher level of happiness inequality than its respective country; if it lies below, it has a lower level. In 2018, there were 548, and in 2030, a projected 706 cities will have at least one million inhabitants. Problem: Is the healthy life expectancy predictable? [9] Rather than relying on a list of factors that researchers consider relevant, our ranking relies on city residents' self-reports of how they themselves evaluate the quality of their lives. Bertram, C., Goebel, J., Krekel, C., and Rehdanz, K. (2020) "Urban Land Use Fragmentation and Human Wellbeing," Kiel Working Papers, 2147. As with current life evaluation, New Delhi (India) scores rather low when it comes to the optimistic outlook of its inhabitants (ranked fifth from the bottom). Chapter 2: The Distribution of World Happiness (John Helliwell, Haifang Huang, and Shun Wang) In this report we give new attention to the inequality of happiness across individuals. Likewise, cities in Egypt (here Alexandria, which is ranked eighth from the bottom) are quite pessimistic places when it comes to the future, and so are cities located in Iran (Tehran, the capital, is ranked ninth and Mashhad is ranked tenth from the bottom). Comparing the top four to the bottom four countries, average incomes are 40 times higher, healthy (eds), World Happiness Report. In line with the methodology of the World Happiness Reports, our main outcome is current life evaluation, obtained from the so-called Cantril ladder, which is an item asking respondents to imagine themselves on a ladder with steps numbered from zero at the bottom to ten at the top, where zero represents the worst possible and ten the best possible life. Stutzer, A., and Frey, B. S. (2008) "Stress that Doesn't Pay: The Commuting Paradox," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 110(2), 339-366. World Happiness Report Introduction Background Happiness ranked based on country Grouped based on 3 years: 2015, 2016, 2017 What impacts happiness Score? World happiness Report 2019 has just been published to coincide with International Day of happiness Report ( 2019.... Sub-Saharan Africa has the happiest immigrants social norms, and 117 countries by their happiness,... 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